While searching about mechanical artillery, I found quite interesting if not shocking information in an article by A Bruhn Hoffmeyer written in 1966.
In Page 132, some steel bow crossbows mentioned with following sentences;
At least during the 12th and 13th centuries Chinese steel crossbows appeared, first in Russia later on in Persia and further to the West. The steel bow here was placed vertically, not horizontally as in Hellenistic or Occidental medieval crossbows.
For this information, the following sources are given;
" K. HUURI.0 C , p. 230; R. SCHNEIDERD: ie Artzllerie des Mzttelalters.
See: A. N KIRPICHNIKOWD:i e Wurfartillerie des alten Russlands, p. 43 ff (in
I tried hard to reach those sources but failed. I also can't read German and Russian thus it would be great to hear what the sources are really meaning by someone could evaluate above sources.
Thanks in advance.